A variety of abnormal conditions in infants that are not disease

               1. Sneezing


Occasional sneezing of newborns is not a sign of a cold, because the blood flow in the nasal cavity of newborns is strong, and the nasal cavity is small and short. If there is stimulation by external tiny substances such as cotton wool, fluff or dust, they will sneeze. This is also a way for babies to clean their nasal cavity by themselves instead of hands.


Babies will sneeze when encountering cold air suddenly. Unless the baby has a runny nose, the nurses don’t need to worry and don’t let the baby take cold medicine.


Second, hiccup

Hiccups are a very common phenomenon, especially in newborns. Many parents think that infant hiccups are symptoms, but they do not know that it is caused by the imperfect development of the children's nervous system. The diaphragm is a thin muscle in the human body. It not only separates the thoracic cavity and abdominal cavity, but is also the main respiratory muscle of the human body. When the diaphragm is contracted, the chest cavity is enlarged, causing inhalation; when the diaphragm is relaxed, the volume of the chest cavity is reduced and exhalation is produced.


Due to the imperfect development of the nervous system in neonates, the autonomic nerve function that controls the movement of the diaphragm is easily affected by external factors. When the baby is slightly stimulated, such as inhaling cold air, eating too fast, etc., a sudden contraction of the diaphragm occurs, which inhales quickly, tightens the vocal cords, closes the glottis suddenly, and makes a "hiccup" sound. As the baby grows, the nervous system develops gradually and the hiccups will gradually decrease. Therefore, parents do not have to be alarmed for the hiccups of their babies. When the baby is hiccuping, you can drink some warm water, or pick it up and pat the back gently to stop the hiccup


3. Frequent changes in skin color


The vasoconstriction function of neonates is not sound, so the skin color changes very frequently. When the weather is cold, the hands and feet will be slightly purple, and when crying, the face will be flushed, and sometimes even because of the sleeping position, the sides of the body or the upper and lower body will have different skin colors. These are all normal phenomena. If the newborn's skin turns yellow 2 to 3 days after birth, but gradually subsides after 7-10 days, it is physiological jaundice.


However, if the newborn's skin becomes yellow within 24 hours after birth, and it worsens rapidly, it may be pathological jaundice, and it needs to be promptly referred to a doctor for diagnosis and treatment.


Four, curled up limbs


Before birth, due to the space limitations in the womb, most of the fetal movements are head to chest, hands clasped in front of the chest, legs curled up, palms clasped. After birth, the head, neck, trunk and limbs will gradually stretch out. Therefore, infants often have mild bending of the calves, inversion of the feet, mild outward rotation of the arms, clenched fists with both hands, or flexion of the limbs.


Under normal circumstances, to rule out brain or neurodevelopmental problems, as long as the control of the nervous system gradually progresses from coarse movements to detailed movements, these states will be corrected naturally.


Five, horse teeth granular


The edge of the gingival of newborns or near the midline of the upper jaw often has a little bit of milky white particles with a smooth surface. There may be 1 to 2 particles as few as possible, and dozens as many as possible. This is because when the embryo develops to 6 weeks, oral mucosal epithelial cells begin to thicken to form dental plates, which are the most primitive tissues for tooth development. Cells continue to proliferate on the dental plate, forming a tooth bud every some distance and developing into tooth germs, so that teeth can be formed in the future. When the tooth germ develops to a stage, it will break and be pushed to the surface of the gum, which is what we commonly call "horse tooth" or "die".


Generally, this condition can be absorbed by itself in about two weeks, and it is not possible to pick it up with a needle or wipe it with a cloth, so as not to damage the mucous membrane and cause infection.


Six, weight loss


Newborns tend to lose weight after 1 week of birth. This is because the newborn's food intake has not yet formed a regular pattern, coupled with the daily excretion of urine and feces, respiratory metabolism, and the excretion of water invisible to the naked eye from the skin, resulting in weight loss. It will be reduced in the first 3-4 days after birth, and the amount of loss may be as much as 10% of birth weight. However, as newborns adapt to the environment, these lost weights will be made up on the 8th and 9th days. If the weight has not recovered after 10 days, you should go to the hospital for medical treatment.


Seven, the head is always tilted to one side.


Some babies have a tendency to tilt their head to one side when they sleep in a fixed posture or when they are fixed to look at something, but during the examination, the movement of the head to the sides is not restricted, which is normal. If the baby's neck is always crooked to one side, and the movement to the other side is restricted, it may indicate that there may be a problem with the neuromuscular system. The common reasons are as follows.


(1) Congenital muscular torticollis. This is due to fibrous contraction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle on one side. The examination showed that there was a round or oval lump on the sick side of the baby's neck, 2-3cm in diameter, hard in texture, movable, not painful to the touch, normal skin on the surface, but not hot, and the child's head is facing The side with the mass is tilted, the ear on the affected side is close to the clavicle, the face is not straight, the mandible and the face are turned to the side with no mass, forming a torticollis.


(2) Increased muscle tone on one side caused by abnormal central nervous system or peripheral neuropathy. At this time, the baby should have a comprehensive physical and nervous system examination, including body posture and muscle tension, muscle strength and movement, neural reflexes, etc., for early diagnosis and treatment.


(3) Others that should be identified are neonatal clavicle fractures and soft tissue contractures.


Eight, startled or shaking limbs


Newborns have startlings during sleep, which are more frequent in light sleep than in deep sleep. When being touched suddenly or hearing a very loud sound, newborns are easily frightened, may have limbs and lower collar shaking, and cry easily. These unconscious and uncoordinated movements are innervated by the subcortical center, and appear in the neonatal period and have no pathological significance. This is due to the immature development of the neonatal nervous system. At this time, as long as you gently press any part of the newborn's body with your hand, you can calm him down.


However, if it occurs frequently, attention should be paid to whether the excitability of the nervous system is increased, and it should be distinguished from neonatal convulsions or convulsions. At this time, you should carefully observe whether the newborn is easy to be agitated, whether it is easy to comfort after crying, and open the cover to observe its natural posture and spontaneous movements. The limbs of normal full-term infants have a certain tension, with flexors dominating, so the limbs are kept in flexion, and the spontaneous movements are often stretched and slow. Infant sudden changes in muscle tension, persistent extensor rigidity, repetitive and rapid twitching of a certain part of the limb, paroxysmal spasm, slight convulsions, horizontal or vertical eye tremor, deviation, repeated eyelid twitching, blinking Such actions are of pathological significance and should be transferred to the neurology department for diagnosis and treatment in time.


Nine, spilled milk

During the baby's 3 months of birth, the cardia muscles are still not fully developed. At this time, the cardia is like a bottle whose contraction is not well controlled, and the newborn's stomach volume is also small, so it is easy to cause milk in the stomach. Juice flows back. Therefore, within a few months after birth, some babies will spill milk more or less, especially after breastfeeding, crying or moving or patting the baby's back. Therefore, after the mother has finished feeding, she can gently pat the baby's back for 2 to 3 minutes to avoid excessive crying of the baby or adopt a sleeping position on the right side, which can also reduce milk overflow.


Normal milk overflowing milk is white, and it flows out slowly from the mouth. If the milk is sprayed out strongly, the amount of spit is large, or the substance with bile is spit out, it is abnormal, and you need to seek medical attention in time.


10. Vaginal bleeding of a baby girl


In the first week after birth, a baby girl can often see a little bloody secretion or mucus flowing out of the vagina, just like vaginal discharge and menstruation.


In fact, this is due to the influence of estrogen in the mother during the fetal period, and the estrogen in the body drops sharply after birth, which makes the uterus and vaginal epithelial tissue fall off, which is a normal physiological phenomenon.

11. Jaw shaking


Because the neonatal nervous system is not fully developed, the inhibition is poor, and the chin often jitters involuntarily, so parents don't need to worry about it.


If it is the cold season, you need to pay attention to whether the baby's chin jitter is caused by insufficient warmth. In addition, if accompanied by other abnormal symptoms, it may be a disease.


 12. Irregular breathing

The newborn's breathing movement is shallow and irregular, and the breathing rate is faster. In the first two weeks after birth, the breathing rate is more than 40 times per minute, and some newborns may have as many as 80 times. These are all normal phenomena. This is due to the soft intercostal muscles of newborns, narrow nasopharynx and trachea, and poor alveolar adaptability. Because the breathing movement is mainly completed by the lifting and lowering of the diaphragm muscles, the newborns are mainly abdominal breathing, and the chest breathing is weak. And because newborns have relatively small exhalation and inhalation each time, which is not enough to meet the needs of the body, the breathing rate is faster, which is a normal physiological phenomenon.


If a premature baby or a baby with poor lung development turns blue due to hypoxia, it can stimulate the baby to cry, prompt the alveoli to open, and increase ventilation.


 Thirteen, squint eyes

Strabismus means that the movement of the eyes of the two eyes cannot be coordinated. Generally speaking, the eyeballs of newborns are not fixed in the early stage, they look a bit cross-eyed, and the muscles of the eyes are not well adjusted, and there is often transient strabismus. This is a physiological phenomenon, also called pseudostrabismus.


 This situation is more common in newborns with a broad face and flat nose. Parents can observe it at home. When exposed to light, the pupils of the baby's eyes have the same position of the reflective points, that is, pseudo-strabismus, and no treatment is required. Otherwise, it needs to be corrected by surgery after a doctor's diagnosis.


14. Hold your breath or cheer


 Newborns have a longer intestine, about 8 times their body length (only 4.5 times as long as an adult). The small intestine is relatively long, with a large secretion area and a large absorption area, so it can adapt to a larger amount of liquid food. The small intestine has good absorption and high permeability, which is conducive to the absorption of immunoglobulin in breast milk, but it is also prone to allergic reactions to other protein molecules (bovine milk, soy protein).


The air swallowed by the newborn can reach the ileum after 2 hours, reach the colon in 3-6 hours, and is evenly distributed throughout the large and small intestines. Therefore, the intestinal tube usually contains a large amount of gas and is often in a swollen state. At the same time, because the newborn grows fast, Need a lot of nutrients, intestinal bacteria contain various enzymes that can hydrolyze protein, break down carbohydrates, saponify fat, dissolve cellulose, synthesize vitamin K and B vitamins, and also produce gas. In addition, the abdominal wall of the newborn is thin and the abdominal muscles are weak. Therefore, affected by the flatulence of the intestinal tube, the newborn often has the phenomenon of "suffocation (invigoration)". Under normal circumstances, the abdomen is full. This is a normal physiological phenomenon of newborns and does not require special treatment.


15. Peeling

Almost all newborns will have peeling, whether it is mild dander or snake-like peeling, as long as the baby's diet and sleep are normal, it is normal. Peeling is due to the incomplete development of the uppermost stratum corneum of the newborn's skin and it is easy to fall off. In addition, the basement membrane that connects the epidermis and the dermis is not developed in newborns, making the connection between the epidermis and the dermis not tight enough, and it is easy to cause the epidermis to fall off. This kind of peeling phenomenon may occur on all parts of the body, but it is more obvious in the limbs and behind the ears. As long as it comes off naturally when taking a bath, there is no need to take special protective measures or forcibly tear off the peeling.


 However, if you have peeling and other symptoms such as redness or blisters, it may be a disease and you need to see a doctor.


16. Breast enlargement

The content of estrogen and prolactin in the mother's body gradually increased during pregnancy, and reached the highest peak before delivery. The function of these hormones is to promote maternal mammary gland development and milk secretion, and the fetus is also affected by these hormones through the placenta in the maternal body. Therefore, the breasts of baby boys or girls will be slightly protruding, and some will even secrete a little milk, commonly known as "newborn milk". These are normal phenomena and do not require treatment.


After the fetus leaves the mother's body, the stimulation from the mother's hormones disappears, and the chest will naturally become flat. Therefore, do not deliberately squeeze the nipple of the newborn to avoid infection.


17. Body temperature fluctuations

The body temperature regulation center of newborns has not been fully developed, so the regulation function is not good, and the body temperature fluctuates greatly. When feeling cool, the newborn will not tremble like an adult. He can only rely on a substance called brown fat to generate heat, and the newborn has a large body surface area (calculated in proportion to the weight), and the subcutaneous fat is also It is thin, so wearing less clothes may cause hypothermia, and wearing too much may cause temporary mild fever. Therefore, to keep the newborn's body temperature normal, the newborn should be kept in a ventilated and moderate temperature environment.


If the newborn has a slight fever, you can let him drink more water, pay attention to loose and comfortable clothes, and then measure the body temperature after 1 hour. Generally, the rectal temperature is the most accurate.            

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